Causes of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) diseases

Diseases of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in their frequency occur after periodontal disease and caries.

Symptoms of the temporomandibular joint disease are observed in up to 40% of people, but not everyone seeks medical help. This figure is not accidental, because the temporomandibular joint is one of the most used in the human body. It is used many times a day for talking, chewing, yawning.

The temporomandibular joint is the joint in front of the ear and consists of the temporal bone and the lower jaw. The tendons and muscles of the joint allow the jaw to open and close. If they are healthy, moving the jaw, the person does not experience any discomfort.

Causes of TMJ diseases

Diseases of the temporomandibular joint have the following causes:

  • Stress (overexertion, tight teeth clenching)
  • Jaw Injury (Facial and Jaw Fractures)
  • Endocrine, metabolic disorders, infectious diseases
  • Excessive physical activity
  • Bad habits (biting nails, holding the phone incorrectly, etc.)


Symptoms of TMJ diseases

  • Headache, spasms in the facial muscles and jaw area
  • Clicking, crunching, grinding when moving the jaw
  • Pain, congestion and ringing in the ears
  • Enlarged submandibular lymph nodes
  • Dizziness

The most common diseases of the temporomandibular joint are dislocation, arthrosis, arthritis (acute and chronic), ankylosis, neoplasms.

Diseases of the temporomandibular joint are very often complications of various dental diseases.

Methods for treating TMJ

Diseases of the temporomandibular joint require appropriate treatment:

  • Rest mode. You need soft food that does not require prolonged chewing, you can not open your mouth wide.
  • Medications
  • Correction of bite. Eliminates excessive teeth clenching
  • Physiotherapy
  • Relief of muscle tension
  • Operation. As a radical method of treatment, it is used in cases where non-surgical treatment has not yielded results.

Of great importance for the diagnosis of a disease of the temporomandibular joint is X-ray, with the help of which the doctor will determine the structure of the joint and its disorders.